The eye shape of the animal world suggests differences in our way of life.
If you look closely at the eyes of the house cat, you will see that the pupil looks like a vertical slit. But a tiger has a round pupil, just like a human. And the eyes of other animals, like sheep and horses, have slit levels.
Scientists have now conducted their first comprehensive study of the three students. It turns out that the shape of the pupil is closely related to the size of the animal and whether it is a predator or prey.
The student is making the aperture, it has many different shapes. Martin fowler, a visual scientist at the university of California, Berkeley. “There’s something strange there,” said Martin Banks.
The pupil of the cuttlefish looks like the letter “W”, and the dolphin’s pupils are shaped like a crescent. Some frogs have heart-shaped pupils, while the gecko’s pupils look like a vertical pinhole.
Needless to say, scientists want to know why all these different shapes are developing. “It’s an active argument, because it’s obvious to you,” Banks said. “the first thing you see is an animal, where the eyes are, what the shape of the pupil is.
For their recent research, Banks and his colleagues decided to keep it simple. They only look at land animals, only three kinds of pupils. “We limit ourselves to the students who are stretched,” Banks explains. So they are either vertical or horizontal or round.
The researchers collected information on 214 species. They noticed the shape of the pupils and the position of the eyes on the head, and the way animals lived. For example, is it a predator or prey, and active during the day or night?
One of the researchers, Bill Sprague of the university of California, Berkeley, says some animals have dark eyes and are hard to see pupils.
“I remember it was the hyenas,” sprague said. “It actually has a vertical pupil, but unless you work with them, it’s hard to tell.
When they pull everything together, in a clear pattern In the journal of “scientific development”, the scientists report that the animal of the pupil has the close relation between shape and its way of life.
“If you have a vertical slit, you are likely to be an ambush predator,” Banks says. That’s the kind of animal that waits and jumps out. These predators, he says, need to accurately determine the distance from prey, and vertical slit has optical characteristics that make it ideal.
But the rule works only when the animal is small, so its eyes won’t be too high, Sprague says.
“The fox, for example, has a vertical pupil in the dog’s blood, but the Wolf has a round pupil,” he said.
A small pet cat has vertical cracks, sprague said. “large carnivores like lions and tigers have rounded pupils.
In general, says Banks, round students seem to be common among taller hunters and actively pursue their prey.
At the same time, he says, if you’re the kind of animal that’s been killed, “you’re probably going to have a horizontal pupil,” and put your eyes on your head. This makes sense, he says, because it gives the prey a panoramic view, so they can best scan all directions.
But scientists are beginning to wonder. This trick works only when the pupil of an animal is parallel to the horizon. Animals like horses and sheep keep stooping down to graze. When the researchers went to see the animals, they found something unexpected.
“When they lower their heads, their eyes rotate in the head to keep them parallel to the ground,” Banks said. “This is remarkable because the eye must rotate in the opposite direction of the head.”
Jenny Read, a visual scientist at Newcastle university, said: ‘I’ve spent a lot of time dealing with horses, getting them to eat, looking around, and so on, and I’ve never noticed that. In the UK. “It’s just a normal observation, anyone can do it, but obviously it’s unknown to science.”
Reading is not on the team, but she says the conclusion seems to be correct. “I think they are the first to come up with a persuasive explanation for why you choose different directions based on your niche,” she said.
Now, none of this matters to scientists. Novelists and filmmakers continue to imagine the pupillary shape of harry potter’s voldemort, or the mythical creatures of the Jurassic world, rex.
Their eyes vertical slit could make them look good and evil, but read said: “I think their paper think it is not realistic, because these creatures are high enough, they should probably have round pupil.