The shape of the eyes in the animal world suggests differences in our lifestyles.
If you look closely at a cat’s eyes, you will see that the pupil looks like a vertical slit. But a tiger has a round pupil, just like a human. Other animals, such as sheep and horses, have cracks in their eyes.
Scientists are now conducting their first comprehensive study of the three students. It turns out that the shape of the pupils is closely related to the size of animals, whether they are predators or prey.
The students are making a circle of light. It has many different shapes. Martin fowler is a visual scientist at the university of California, Berkeley. “There’s something strange there,” said Martin Banks.
The pupil of the cuttlefish looks like the letter “W”, and the pupil of the dolphin looks like a crescent moon. Some frogs have heart-shaped pupils, while gecko pupils look like vertical pinholes.
There is no doubt that scientists want to know why all these different shapes are developing. “It’s a positive argument because it’s obvious to you,” Banks said. “The first thing you see is animals, where are the eyes, what are the shapes of the pupils.
For their recent research, Banks and his colleagues decided to keep it simple. They only look at land animals. There are only three kinds of students. “We are restricted to students who are stretched,” Banks explained. So they’re either vertical or horizontal or circular
The researchers collected information on 214 species. They noticed the shape of their pupils, the position of their eyes on their heads, and the way animals lived. Is it a predator or prey, for example, active during the day or at night?
Bill sprague of the university of California, Berkeley, said one of the researchers said some animals have dark eyes and can hardly see students.
Akhal-teke from turkmenistan has a horizontal pupil, while the gecko of the Mediterranean house has a vertical slit that looks like a series of pinholes.
“I remember it was hyenas,” said sprague. “It actually has a vertical pupil, but it’s hard to say unless you use them.
When they integrate all things together, in a clear pattern in the magazine “scientific development”, the scientists report that the pupil of the animals have a close relationship between shape and way of life.
“If you have a vertical slit, you could be an ambush predator,” Banks said. The animal that waits and jumps out. These predators need to accurately determine the distance of their prey, he said, and vertical slits have optical properties that make them ideal.
But the rule only applies to small animals, so its eyes aren’t too high, Sprague says.
“For example, a fox has a vertical pupil in a dog’s blood, but a Wolf has a circular pupil,” he said.
A small pet cat has vertical cracks, says sprague. “Large carnivores like lions and tigers have round pupils.
In general, Banks says, round students seem to be common among taller hunters and actively pursue their prey.
At the same time, he said, if you’re one of those killed animals, “you might have a horizontal pupil,” and put your eyes on your head. That makes sense, he says, because it gives the prey a panoramic view, so they can best scan all directions.
But scientists are starting to wonder. This technique works only when the pupil of an animal is parallel to the horizon. Animals like horses and sheep continue to stoop to the grass. When the researchers went to see the animals, they found something unexpected.
“When they lower their heads, their eyes rotate around their heads, making them parallel to the ground,” Banks said. “It’s amazing because the eyes have to rotate in the opposite direction of the head.”
Jenny Read, a visual scientist at Newcastle university, said: “I spend a lot of time dealing with horses, having them eat, looking around and so on, and I’ve never noticed that. In the UK. “It’s a normal observation that anyone can make, but it’s clearly unknown to science.”
Reading wasn’t part of the team, but she said the conclusion seemed correct. “I think they’re the first to come up with a convincing explanation for why you’re choosing a different direction for your niche,” she said.
Now, none of this matters to scientists. Novelists and filmmakers continue to imagine the shape of harry potter’s voldemort’s pupils, or the mythical rex of Jurassic world.
Vertical open their eyes to make them look good and evil, but read said: “I think their paper think it is not realistic, because these creatures are high enough, they should have a round pupil.